How to Format Footnotes Correctly: Rules and Guidelines

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How to Format Footnotes Correctly: Rules and Guidelines

When it is required to clarify any information in the texts of abstracts or articles, the question arises of how to correctly draw up footnotes in scientific work. There are a few rules to remember, however contacting write my papers will ensure that this problem will no longer bother you.


Footnotes and References - Please Do Not Confuse


Footnotes and references should not be confused. These two concepts are confused not only by students, but also by teachers. Let's draw a clear line between the concepts of "footnote" and "link". Bibliographic link - full information about the source (author, title, place and year of issue, number of pages).


We use such references in the design of the bibliography at the end of the work and within the text in brackets. Footnotes can be divided into two groups:

  • a short explanation of a certain moment of work, for example, the interpretation of a concept, translation of foreign words, phrases;
  • an indication of the source of a quotation, indirect speech or retelling of thoughts (suggest the use of clichéd phrases in the text).


A footnote and a reference are confused because the former can become a place to post complete information about the source (bibliographic reference). It is important to remember whenever you're trying to edit my english paper for university. A bibliographic reference shows the reader “what the work is made of”, where the author got the information, and the footnote serves as a supplement.


Types of footnotes and references


Depending on the design features, all links are divided into 3 groups:

  • inline in parentheses;
  • inline in square brackets;
  • behind-text (list of references).


The first two types of links send the reader to the source (in the bibliography) from which the information is taken, indicating the exact page. The arrangement of these types of links is called certification. Footnotes are only subscripts (they are taken down the page under the last line).


Features of the design of inline links


We consider it necessary to buy cheap assignments for all students. Let's explain the design of these types of links in the article on footnotes, because some teachers do not distinguish between them at all. The design of links of this type is elementary: immediately after a quote or retelling of other people's thoughts, a link to a certain source is provided. It looks like this: (21, 158), [3, 25] (in some establishments it is still like this - (21, P. 158), [3, P. 25]). The first number in brackets is the ordinal number of the source in the list of references, the second is the page number.


Do I need to put the letter "s." (abbreviation for "page") we learn from the methodological recommendations of our own department or from a scientific advisor? The insidiousness of these references is that the list of references can change (sources are added or removed), and the position numbers of the list are shifted. All changes need to be made in links, densely scattered throughout the text. Thus, the slightest "movement" in the bibliography will force a revision of the entire work.


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